02.04.2013

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Announcements / Press Releases

Countdown nears for final 1,000 days of MDGs — (English)
Friday marks the start of the last 1,000 days for creating and implementing the Millennium Development Goals. Social media campaigns will highlight the MDG achievements as well as spur where it is needed...

GMAP Financing [RBM] — (English)
New section on the RBM website that describes the latest funding trends, financial needs: by region and by sector, fundraising streams and strategic actions, as well as the latest news on GMAP financing...

7th Meeting of the RBM Case Management Working Group (CMWG) [RBM] — (English)
Background documents and presentations of the meeting...

In a relatively quiet region of Mali, programme targets malaria deaths [UNICEF press release] — (English)
Combined with the chronic malnutrition in Mali, malaria is the main cause of death for children under the age of 5...

Can We Save More Than Four Million Children's Lives In the Next 1,000 Days? [Huffington Post (blog)] — (English)
On December 31, 2015, 1,000 days from April 6, we'll reach the deadline for achievement of the Millennium Development Goals...

SARN mission reports 2013 [RBM SARN] — (English)
Zimbabwe mission report (Feb 2013)...

Malaria Consortium: South Sudan Country Director [Malaria Consortium] — (English)
Application deadline: 7 April 2013...

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Articles requiring subscription or registration

Breakdown in the Process of Incipient Speciation in Anopheles gambiae [Genetics April 1, 2013 vol. 193 no. 4 1221-1231] — (English)
The major African malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) is considered to contain two incipient species with strong reproductive isolation, hybrids between the M and S molecular forms being very rare. Following recent observations of higher proportions of hybrid forms at a few sites in West Africa, we conducted new surveys of 12 sites in four contiguous countries (The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, and Republic of Guinea)...

CD8+ T cell activation by murine erythroblasts infected with malaria parasites [Scientific Reports 3, Article number: 1572 doi:10.1038/srep01572] — (English)
Recent studies show that some human malaria parasite species Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasitize erythroblasts; however, the biological and clinical significance of this is unclear. To investigate further, we generated a rodent malaria parasite (P. yoelii 17XNL) expressing GFP-ovalbumin (OVA)...

Expansion of host cellular niche can drive adaptation of a zoonotic malaria parasite to humans [Nature Communications 4, Article number: 1638 doi:10.1038/ncomms2612] — (English)
Here we show that a primate-adapted P. knowlesi parasite proliferates poorly in human blood due to a strong preference for young red blood cells (RBCs)...

Learning all the lessons: Expanding access to malaria diagnosis and treatment [Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication 28 March 2013; doi: 10.1057/jphp.2013.15] — (English)
An independent evaluation of the Affordable Medicine Facility for malaria (AMFm) pilot phase has hailed it as a success, but important limitations and unanswered questions remain. In 2012, the board of the Global Fund decided to integrate the AMFm into country grants by 2014. This means that countries now need to determine how much of available grant resources to spend on expanding access through the public sector and how much, if any, on subsidizing drugs in the private, for-profit sector. The assumption of the AMFm has assumed that improving delivery of artemisinin-based combination therapy through the private sector would be more efficient than further expanding access through the public sector and community health workers. But, the advantage of expanding and improving service delivery through the public sector and community health workers is that treatments can be effectively linked with diagnosis and that diagnosis and treatment can be offered for free...

Study protocol for a randomised controlled double-blinded trial of the dose-dependent efficacy and safety of primaquine for clearance of gametocytes in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Uganda [BMJ Open 2013;3:e002759 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002759] — (English)
This study investigates the efficacy and safety of reducing doses of primaquine for clearance of gametocytes in participants with normal G6PD status...

A T-cell response to a liver-stage Plasmodium antigen is not boosted by repeated sporozoite immunizations [PNAS] — (English)
Here, using mice singly immunized with Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites and high-throughput screening, we identified a unique CTL response against the parasite ribosomal L3 protein...

Artesunate/Amodiaquine Malaria Treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa) [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013 12-0290] — (English)
The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance...

Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs): A Strategy for Making Long-Lasting Nets Last Longer? [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013 12-0641] — (English)
This paper suggests a participatory research strategy—trials of improved practices (TIPs)—that could identify locally appropriate approaches to prolonging net life and increasing effective use...

Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy: Knowledge and Perceptions of Patent Medicine Dealers in Owerri Metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria and Implications for Compliance with Current Malaria Treatment Protocol [Journal of Community Health March 2013] — (English)
This study was done to access the knowledge and perceptions of Patent Medicine Dealers (PMDs) in Owerri Metropolis of Nigeria about Artemisinin Based Combination Therapy as first line treatment for malaria using structured pre-tested questionnaires administered to 80 randomly selected and consenting respondents...

HIV Treatments have Malaria Gametocyte Killing and Transmission Blocking Activity [J Infect Dis. (2013) doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit132] — (English)
Specific HIV treatments have gametocyte killing and transmission blocking effects. Clinical studies are warranted to evaluate these findings and their potential impact on eradication efforts...

Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 and Protection from Blood-stage Infection [J Infect Dis. (2013) doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit134] — (English)
Evaluating combined allele-specific cellular and humoral immunity elicited by malaria provides a more informative measure of protection relative to either measure alone...

Challenges for malaria elimination in Zanzibar: pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and poor performance of long-lasting insecticide nets [Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:82 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-82] — (English)
The sustainability of the gains achieved in malaria control in Zanzibar is seriously threatened by the resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and the short-lived efficacy of LLINs. This study has revealed that even in relatively well-resourced and logistically manageable places like Zanzibar, malaria elimination is going to be difficult to achieve with the current control measures...

Colonization of Anopheles cracens: a malaria vector of emerging importance [Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:81 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-81] — (English)
This is the first description of maintaining the Malaysian strain An. cracens colony by artificial mating. Colonization of An. cracens will provide fundamental information for genetic studies and will be useful in assessing comparative susceptibility to Plasmodium parasites...

Transgenic parasites stably expressing full-length Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein as a model for vaccine down-selection in mice using sterile protection as endpoint [CVI.00066-13] — (English)
In the present study, the mouse-mosquito transmission cycle of a transgenic Plasmodium berghei malaria parasite stably expressing a functional full-length P. falciparum CSP was optimized to consistently produce infective sporozoites for protection studies...

Platelet Induction of the Acute-Phase Response Is Protective in Murine Experimental Cerebral Malaria [The Journal of Immunology March 27, 2013 1202672] — (English)
We now demonstrate that these diverse and seemingly contradictory roles for platelets extend to cerebral malaria models and are dependent on the timing of platelet activation during infection...

Dual-functioning antimalarials that inhibit the chloroquine-resistance transporter [Future Microbiology April 2013, Vol. 8, No. 4, Pages 475-489 , DOI 10.2217/fmb.13.18] — (English)
A new approach has been the preparation of dual-function compounds that include a chloroquine-like antimalarial group and a group that resembles a chloroquine chemosensitizer. This article reviews the recent discovery of such dual-function antimalarials that are proposed to target both hemozoin formation and the chloroquine resistance transporter, PfCRT. These are discussed in relation to the mechanism of action of 4-aminoquinolines, chloroquine resistance and resistance reversal..

Malariometric Indices among Nigerian Children in a Rural Setting [Malaria Research and Treatment Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 716805, 4 pages] — (English)
To determine its endemicity in a rural farming community in the south-south of Nigeria, the following malariometric indices, namely, malaria parasitaemia, spleen rates, and anaemia were evaluated in children aged 2–10 years. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey among school-age children residing in a rubber plantation settlement...

Raman spectroscopic analysis of malaria disease progression via blood and plasma samples [Analyst, 2013, DOI: 10.1039/C3AN00255A] — (English)
In this study Raman spectroscopy has been used to monitor the changes in erythrocytes and plasma during Plasmodium infection in mice, following malaria disease progression over the course of 7 days...

Young Lives Lost as B Cells Falter: What We Are Learning About Antibody Responses in Malaria [J Immunol. 2013 Apr 1;190(7):3039-46. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1203067] — (English)
We herein review progress toward understanding the B cell biology of P. falciparum infection, focusing on what has been learned from population-based studies in malaria-endemic areas. We suggest ways in which advances in immunology and genomics-based technology can further improve our understanding of the B cell response in malaria and perhaps illuminate new pathways to the development of effective vaccines...